Convert nad to nadh anabolic or catabolic

This step is the enzymatic transfer of a phosphate group from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP by phosphoglycerate kinase , forming ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate . At this step, glycolysis has reached the break-even point: 2 molecules of ATP were consumed, and 2 new molecules have now been synthesized. This step, one of the two substrate-level phosphorylation steps, requires ADP; thus, when the cell has plenty of ATP (and little ADP), this reaction does not occur. Because ATP decays relatively quickly when it is not metabolized, this is an important regulatory point in the glycolytic pathway.

Glycolysis is the anaerobic catabolism of glucose. In other words, as its name implies, the pathway uses several enzyme catalyzed reactions to split (lysis) a sugar (glyco). Glycolysis occus in the cytosol. The Individual Reactions of Glycolysis The pathway of glycolysis can be seen as consisting of 2 separate phases. The first is the chemical priming phase requiring energy in the form of ATP, and the second is considered the energy-yielding phase. In the first phase, 2 equivalents of ATP are used to convert glucose to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP). In the second phase F1,6BP is degraded to pyruvate, with the production of 4 equivalents of ATP and 2 equivalents of NADH. GLYCOLOSYS YIELDS: 8 ATP; 2NADH + H + , 4 ATP, -2 ATP

  • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 2NAD + -> 2C 3 H 4 O 3 + 2NADH + 2H + A great animation of glycolysis can be found HERE The Krebs Cycle The pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis contain a lot of energy in the bonds between their molecules. In order to use that energy, the cell must convert it into the form of ATP. To do so, pyruvate molecules are processed through the Krebs Cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle. This cycle occurs in the mitochondria. 1. Prior to entering the Krebs Cycle, pyruvate must be converted into acetyl CoA. This is achieved by removing a CO 2 molecule from pyruvate and then removing an electron to reduce an NAD + into NADH. An enzyme called coenzyme A is combined with the remaining acetyl to make acetyl CoA which is then fed into the Krebs Cycle. The steps in the Krebs Cycle are summarized below:

    Convert nad to nadh anabolic or catabolic

    convert nad to nadh anabolic or catabolic

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