Corticosteroid hormone glucocorticoid

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

As with any medication, there are possible side effects or risks involved.  Common risks from steroid injections include pain at the injection site, bruising due to broken blood vessels, skin discolouration and aggravation of inflammation.  Rarer risks include allergic reactions, infection, tendon rupture and serious injury to bones called necrosis.  Long term side effects (depending on frequency and dose) include thinning of skin, easy bruising, weight gain, puffiness in the face, higher blood pressure, cataract formation, and osteoporosis (reduced bone density).  Steroid injections may be given every 3-4 months but frequent injections may lead to tissue weakening at the injection site and is not recommended.  Side effects do not happen in everyone and vary from person to person.

We have also noted that 24-hour urinary estrogens can be a sensitive monitor of liver detoxification capability. Elevated urinary estrogens in normally-cycling women may indicate a history of exposure to liver stresses such as excessive environmental organic chemicals. Interventions intended to improve liver function result in a gradual normalization of the abnormal estrogen levels. Thus, measurement of urinary estrogens can give insight into other aspects of physiology. This phenomenon is also noted in peri- or post-menopausal women who have previously taken Premarin, and have switched to triple-estrogen replacement with less-than-optimal symptom relief.

Corticosteroid hormone glucocorticoid

corticosteroid hormone glucocorticoid


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