In Finland, the degree of filosofian tohtori (abbreviated FT ) is awarded by traditional universities, such as University of Helsinki . A Master's degree is required, and the doctorate combines approximately 4–5 years of research (amounting to 3–5 scientific articles, some of which must be first-author) and 60 ECTS points of studies.  Other universities such as Aalto University award degrees such as tekniikan tohtori ( TkT , engineering), taiteen tohtori ( TaT , art), etc., which are translated in English to Doctor of Science (.), and they are formally equivalent. The licentiate ( filosofian lisensiaatti or FL ) requires only 2–3 years of research and is sometimes done before an FT.